Once the NRL has certified a union as an exclusive bargaining partner, the union has an irrefutable presumption of one-year majority support (River Dyeing – Finishing Corp. v. NLRB, 482 U.S. 27, 107 S. 2225, 96 L. Ed. 2d 22 ). This year, the employer must not refuse to negotiate with the union because the union does not represent a majority of workers. At the end of this year, the employer may refute the presumption that the union represents the majority of workers, by showing either that the union does not have majority support, or that the employer doubts in good faith that the union has lost the majority (NLRB/Curtin Matheson Scientific, 494 U.S.
775, 110 S. Ct. 1542 , 108 L Ed. 2d 801 ). In cases where the employer doubts that a union is a majority, the employer may “proactively withdraw” the union`s recognition by insisting on a collective agreement that ends at the end of the certification year (Rock-Tenn Co. v. NLRB, 69 F.3d 803 [7. Cir.
A collective agreement, collective agreement (TC) or collective agreement (CBA) is a written collective agreement negotiated by collective bargaining for workers by one or more unions with the management of a company (or with an employer organization) that regulates the commercial conditions of workers in the workplace. These include regulating workers` wages, benefits and obligations, as well as the obligations and responsibilities of the employer, and often includes rules for a dispute resolution process. The Office of Labor Management Standards, part of the U.S. Department of Labor, is required to collect all collective agreements for 1,000 or more workers, with the exception of those involving railroads and airlines.  They offer the public access to these collections through their website. Nevertheless, a party`s insistence on a certain contract term is not necessarily an unfair labour practice. The NRL and the courts that review and enforce their orders are not prepared to replace their judgment with that of the parties and will not judge the content of the collective agreements (NLRB/American National Insurance Co., 343 U.S. 395, 72 P. Ct. 824, 96 L Ed.
1027 ). Moreover, the use of “economic weapons”, such as pressure tactics, picketing and strikes to force bargaining concessions, is not necessarily a negotiation in bad faith (NLRB v. Insurance Agents` International Union, 361 U.S. 477, 80 P. Ct. 419, 4 L Ed. 2d 454 ). If one party wants to negotiate a mandatory subject, it is an unfair work practice for the other to refuse. Other topics are subjects of generous bargaining and it may be an unfair labour practice for some party to demand negotiations about them (NLRB v. Wooster Division of Borg-Warner Corp., 356 U.S. 342, 78 P.
Ct. 718, 2 L. Ed. 2d 823 ). Therefore, although the parties are obliged to negotiate negotiating matters before implementing unilateral amendments, they can unilaterally amend generous issues without negotiation and cannot be forced to negotiate such amendments. The American Federation of Labor was founded in 1886 and provided a large number of workers with unprecedented bargaining power.  The Railway Labor Act (1926) required employers to bargain collectively with unions.